The value of self-report assessment of adherence, rhinitis and smoking in relation to asthma control

Prim Care Respir J. 2009 Dec;18(4):300-5. doi: 10.4104/pcrj.2009.00037.


Aims: To explore the utility of self-report measures of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence, degree of rhinitis and smoking status and their association with asthma control.

Methods: Patients prescribed ICS for asthma at 85 UK practices were sent validated questionnaire measures of control (Asthma Control Questionnaire; ACQ) and adherence (Medication Adherence Report Scale), a two-item measure of smoking status, and a single-item measure of rhinitis.

Results: Complete anonymised questionnaires were available for 3916 participants. Poor asthma control (ACQ >1.5) was associated with reported rhinitis (OR = 4.62; 95% CI: 3.71-5.77), smoking (OR = 4.33; 95% CI: 3.58-5.23) and low adherence to ICS (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.18-1.55). The degree of rhinitis was important, with those reporting severe rhinitis exhibiting the worst asthma control, followed by those reporting mild rhinitis and then those reporting no rhinitis symptoms (F(2, 3913)=128.7, p<.001). There was a relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked each day and asthma control (F(5,655)=6.08, p<.001).

Conclusions: Poor asthma control is associated with self-reported rhinitis, smoking and low medication adherence. These potentially modifiable predictors of poor asthma control can be identified through a brief self-report questionnaire, used routinely as part of an asthma review.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adolescent
  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Asthma / etiology*
  • Asthma / prevention & control*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient Compliance*
  • Rhinitis / complications*
  • Self Disclosure*
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • United Kingdom


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents