Background & aims: We described dietary habits in a Spanish sample of COPD patients and assessed its adequacy according to dietary recommendations, which so far have never been published.
Methods: 275 patients hospitalized for the first time for a COPD exacerbation in Spain answered a 122-item food frequency questionnaire on their last 2 years dietary habits. A Spanish food composition table was used to estimate nutrient intake. Adequacy of dietary intakes was assessed using the Spanish Nutrition Society guidelines for the elderly.
Results: Mean(SD) age was 68(8)years, 93% males, 32% current smokers, and post-bronchodilator FEV(1) 53(16)% predicted. Mean(SD) body mass index was 28(5)kg/m2, with only 2% of subjects under 20kg/m2. Mean intake of meat, poultry and eggs was slightly higher (mean 108g/d) than recommended. Fish and shellfish (86g/d) as well as fruit and vegetables (567g/d) were adequate. Mean energy intake was 2033kcal/d. The proportion of energy from carbohydrates was lower (39%) whereas that from proteins and lipids were higher than recommended (20% and 35%, respectively). Alcohol intake was <30g in 80% of patients. Fatty acids, vitamin and mineral intakes were adequate, except for a deficiency in vitamin D (4.5microg/d). Stratification by socio-demographic and clinical characteristics showed very similar results.
Conclusions: Moderate-to-severe Spanish COPD patients report an adequate intake of the main food groups and macro- and micro-nutrients according to local recommendations, excepting vitamin D.