Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) arise from multiple causes, including environmental factors, gut microflora, immunity, and genetic predispositions. In the course of IBD, immune homeostasis and intestinal mucosa barrier integrity are impaired. Among natural preventive treatments that have been identified to date, polyphenols appear as promising candidates. They have been shown to protect against several diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and they have anti-inflammatory properties in non-intestinal models. This paper will review the literature that has described to date some effects of polyphenols on intestinal inflammation. Studies, conducted using in vivo and in vitro models, provide evidence that pure polyphenolic compounds and natural polyphenolic plant extracts can modulate intestinal inflammation.