3-Hydroxyisobutyric aciduria, a disorder of valine metabolism, has been found in a boy in whom the clinical picture was that of a typical organic acidemia with repeated episodes of ketoacidosis requiring admission to hospital and parenteral fluid therapy, along with impressive failure to thrive and chronic lactic acidemia. The excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyric acid ranged from 170 to 390 mmol/mol of creatinine. The administration of valine increased this to 18,700 mmol/mol of creatinine and reproduced the clinical picture of ketoacidosis. Concentrations of free carnitine were low, and esterified carnitine was elevated. Treatment with carnitine and a diet restricted in protein appeared to be beneficial.