Whiplash injury

J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009 Jul;91(7):845-50. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.91B7.22639.


This review discusses the causes, outcome and prevention of whiplash injury, which costs the economy of the United Kingdom approximately pound 3.64 billion per annum. Most cases occur as the result of rear-end vehicle collisions at speeds of less than 14 mph. Patients present with neck pain and stiffness, occipital headache, thoracolumbar back pain and upper-limb pain and paraesthesia. Over 66% make a full recovery and 2% are permanently disabled. The outcome can be predicted in 70% after three months.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Accidents, Traffic / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Compensation and Redress / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neck Pain / etiology*
  • Neck Pain / prevention & control
  • Time Factors
  • United Kingdom
  • Whiplash Injuries / complications*
  • Whiplash Injuries / economics
  • Whiplash Injuries / therapy