Previous studies have demonstrated that in the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling model, recurrent seizures either impair or have no effect on learning and memory. However, the effects of brief seizures on learning and memory remain unknown. Here, we found that a single injection of a convulsive dose of PTZ (50 mg/kg, ip) induced brief seizures in Sprague-Dawley rats. Administration of PTZ before training impaired the acquisition of spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and fear memory in contextual fear conditioning. However, the administration of PTZ immediately after training did not affect memory consolidation in either task. These findings suggest that brief seizures have different effects on acquisition and consolidation of spatial and fear memory.