Milk products, dietary patterns and blood pressure management

J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Feb;28 Suppl 1:103S-19S. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2009.10719804.

Abstract

High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, and kidney disease. Inverse associations between dairy product consumption and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) have been observed in cross-sectional studies; some studies, however, have reported an inverse association with only one BP parameter, predominantly SBP. Randomized clinical trials examining the effect of calcium and the combination of calcium, potassium and magnesium provide evidence for causality. In these studies, reductions in BP were generally modest (-1.27 to -4.6 mmHg for SBP, and -0.24 to -3.8 mmHg for DBP). Dairy nutrients, most notably calcium, potassium and magnesium, have been shown to have a blood pressure lowering effect. A low calcium intake increases intracellular calcium concentrations which increases 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), causing calcium influx into vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in greater vascular resistance. New research indicates that dairy peptides may act as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thereby inhibiting the renin angiotensin system with consequent vasodilation. A growing evidence base shows that dairy product consumption is involved in the regulation of BP. Consequently, inclusion of dairy products in a heart healthy diet is an important focal point to attain BP benefits.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects*
  • Dairy Products*
  • Diet*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diet therapy*
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Micronutrients / pharmacology*
  • Micronutrients / therapeutic use
  • Milk Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Milk Proteins / therapeutic use

Substances

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Micronutrients
  • Milk Proteins