Rapid ABO genotyping using whole blood without DNA purification

Korean J Lab Med. 2009 Jun;29(3):231-7. doi: 10.3343/kjlm.2009.29.3.231.


Background: ABO genotyping is commonly used in cases of an ABO discrepancy between cell typing and serum typing, as well as in forensic practice for personal identification and paternity testing. We evaluated ABO genotyping via multiplex allele-specific PCR (ASPCR) amplification using whole blood samples without DNA purification.

Methods: A four-reaction multiplex ASPCR genotyping assay was designed to detect specific nucleotide sequence differences between the six ABO alleles A101, A102, B101, O01, O02, and cis-AB01. The ABO genotypes of 127 randomly chosen samples were determined using the new multiplex ASPCR method.

Results: The genotypes of the 127 samples were found to be A101/A102 (n=1), A102/A102 (n=9), A101/O01 (n=3), A102/O01 (n=12), A102/O02 (n=14), B101/B101 (n=5), B101/O01 (n=18), B101/O02 (n=15), O01/O01 (n=14), O02/O02 (n=8), O01/O02 (n=14) and A102/B101 (n=14), from which phenotypes were calculated to be A (n=39), B (n=38), O (n=36) and AB (n=14). The multiplex ASPCR assay results were compared with the serologically determined blood group phenotypes and genotypes determined by DNA sequencing, and there were no discrepancies.

Conclusions: This convenient multiplex ASPCR assay, performed using whole blood samples, provides a supplement to routine serological ABO typing and might also be useful in other genotyping applications.

MeSH terms

  • ABO Blood-Group System / genetics*
  • Alleles*
  • DNA / blood
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*


  • ABO Blood-Group System
  • DNA