This study retrospectively evaluated outcomes, complications, and tumor shrinkage in renal angiomyolipomas after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). All renal angiomyolipoma patients who underwent TAE between August 2000 and December 2008 and had short-term (<or=6 months) or long-term (>6 months) follow-up images were evaluated. Complications and tumor relapse after TAE were reviewed. The sizes of embolized tumors were measured to calculate size reductions and reduction rates after TAE. Differences in tumor size, size reduction, and reduction rate between different time points (pre-TAE, short-term follow-up, and long-term follow-up) and groups (completely and incompletely embolized) were determined. Eleven renal angiomyolipoma patients who had undergone TAE were included. Seven (63.6%) patients had postembolization syndrome and one had abscess formation following TAE. Two patients had a tumor relapse (18.2%). The mean tumor size was 8.57+/-2.66 cm on pre-TAE images. The mean size reduction was 3.1 cm (33.3%) and 3.8 cm (43.0%) at short-term and long-term follow-up. Tumor sizes differed significantly between pre-TAE and short-term (p=0.004) or long-term images (p=0.022) but not between short-term and long-term images (p=0.059). Results stratified by the completeness of embolization indicate that only the short-term size reduction rate differed significantly (p=0.025), while the long-term reduction rate and short- and long-term follow-up tumor size and size reduction were comparable between the two groups. In conclusion, selective TAE is effective for tumor shrinkage in most renal angiomyolipomas, with acceptable complication and relapse rates. Tumor shrinkage occurring within 6 months after TAE may reflect the long-term effect of TAE.