Respondent-driven sampling as Markov chain Monte Carlo

Stat Med. 2009 Jul 30;28(17):2202-29. doi: 10.1002/sim.3613.


Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a recently introduced, and now widely used, technique for estimating disease prevalence in hidden populations. RDS data are collected through a snowball mechanism, in which current sample members recruit future sample members. In this paper we present RDS as Markov chain Monte Carlo importance sampling, and we examine the effects of community structure and the recruitment procedure on the variance of RDS estimates. Past work has assumed that the variance of RDS estimates is primarily affected by segregation between healthy and infected individuals. We examine an illustrative model to show that this is not necessarily the case, and that bottlenecks anywhere in the networks can substantially affect estimates. We also show that variance is inflated by a common design feature in which the sample members are encouraged to recruit multiple future sample members. The paper concludes with suggestions for implementing and evaluating RDS studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Biometry
  • Epidemiologic Methods
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Markov Chains*
  • Models, Statistical
  • Monte Carlo Method*
  • New York City / epidemiology
  • Public Health / statistics & numerical data
  • Sampling Studies*
  • Social Support
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications