Pharmacokinetics of digoxin and main metabolites/derivatives in healthy humans

Ther Drug Monit. 1991 Sep;13(5):381-401. doi: 10.1097/00007691-199109000-00001.

Abstract

Three healthy, young male volunteers received doses of 0.6 and 1.2 mg of specifically labelled [3H]digoxin each by intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection and oral (p.o.) administration in accordance with a randomized four-way crossover design. Plasma, urine, and feces samples were taken over an interval of 144 h after drug administration. Total radioactivity and individual radioactivity assignable to digoxin and its metabolites were measured. After i.v. administration, the mean +/- SD recovery of total radioactivity, as percent of dose, was complete, urine 81.3 +/- 2.0% and feces 17.1 +/- 2.8%. The mean recovery of digoxin and that of its metabolites in urine was digoxin 75.6 +/- 3.0%, dihydrodigoxin 2.8 +/- 1.6%, digoxigenin bisdigitoxoside 1.6 +/- 0.1%, and additional metabolites 1.5 +/- 0.3%. Judging from the metabolite data in urine and considering the 5% impurity of the administered dose, metabolism of digoxin appeared to be insignificant after i.v. administration. The total and renal clearances of digoxin were, on average, 193 +/- 25 ml min-1 and 152 +/- 24 ml min-1. The mean steady state volume of distribution was 489 +/- 73 L and the mean residence time 41 +/- 5 h. For the metabolites dihydrodigoxin and digoxigenin bisdigitoxoside the mean residence times were on average 35 +/- 9 h and 53 +/- 11 h; the renal clearances were 79 +/- 13 ml min-1 and 100 +/- 26 ml min-1. After p.o. administration, the mean recovery of total radioactivity, as percent of the dose, was also complete, urine 65.7 +/- 1.98% and feces 31.6 +/- 7.6%. The mean recovery of digoxin and that of its metabolites, as percent of dose, in urine was digoxin 51.5 +/- 11.4%, dihydrodigoxin 4.5 +/- 3.9%, digoxigenin bisdigitoxoside 1.9 +/- 0.1%, polar metabolites 5.5 +/- 3.8%, and additional metabolites 1.3 +/- 0.6%. After p.o., as compared to i.v. administration, larger amounts of all the metabolites were formed in accordance with first pass metabolism/degradation. Maximum mean plasma concentrations of 4.3 +/- 2.5 ng ml-1 and 9.5 +/- 1.1 ng ml-1 for digoxin were observed at 40 +/- 10 min after p.o. administration of 0.6 and 1.2 mg of the drug. The mean absolute bioavailability of digoxin from an aqueous solution was 0.67 +/- 0.14. Renal clearance and mean oral residence time for digoxin were on average 176 +/- 28 ml min-1 and 37 +/- 4 h after p.o. administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Biological Availability
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Digoxin / blood
  • Digoxin / pharmacokinetics*
  • Digoxin / urine
  • Feces / chemistry
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Random Allocation

Substances

  • Digoxin