Zwitterionic carboxybetaine polymer surfaces and their resistance to long-term biofilm formation

Biomaterials. 2009 Oct;30(28):5234-40. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.05.058. Epub 2009 Jul 1.


In this work, we report a systematic study of zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) (pCBMA) grafted from glass surfaces via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for their resistance to long-term bacterial biofilm formation. Results show that pCBMA-grafted surfaces are highly resistant to non-specific protein adsorption (fibrinogen and undiluted blood plasma) at 25, 30 and 37 degrees C. Long-term (over 24 h) colonization of two bacterial strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Pseudomonas putida strain 239) on pCBMA surface was studied using a parallel flow cell at 25, 30 and 37 degrees C. Uncoated glass cover slips were chosen as the positive reference. Results show that pCBMA coatings reduced long-term biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa up to 240 h by 95% at 25 degrees C and for 64 h by 93% at 37 degrees C, and suppressed P. putida biofilm accumulation up to 192 h by 95% at 30 degrees C, with respect to the glass reference. The ability of pCBMA coatings to resist non-specific protein adsorption and significantly retard bacterial biofilm formation makes it a very promising material for biomedical and industrial applications.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Betaine / chemistry*
  • Betaine / pharmacology*
  • Biofilms / drug effects*
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry*
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / pharmacology*
  • Fibrinogen / chemistry
  • Glass / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Plasma / chemistry
  • Polymethacrylic Acids / chemistry*
  • Polymethacrylic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / growth & development
  • Pseudomonas putida / drug effects
  • Pseudomonas putida / growth & development
  • Surface Properties


  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Polymethacrylic Acids
  • polycarboxybetaine methacrylate
  • Betaine
  • Fibrinogen