Mechanism of formation of pseudotypes between vesicular stomatitis virus and murine leukemia virus

Cell. 1977 Jul;11(3):505-11. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(77)90068-x.


Pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV), defined by their resistance to neutralization by anti-VSV antiserum, are released preferentially at early times after infection of MuLV-producing cells with VSV. At later times, after synthesis of MuLV proteins has been inhibited by the VSV infection, neither MuLV virions nor the VSV (MuLV) pseudotypes are made. Infection of MuLV-producing cells with mutants of VSV having temperature-sensitive lesions in either G or M protein does not generate pseudotypes at nonpermissive temperature, indicating that both proteins are needed for pseudotypes to form. Although the pseudotypes resist neutralization by anti-VSV serum, they are inactivated by anti-VSV serum plus complement, and they can be precipitated by rabbit anti-VSV serum plus goat anti-rabbit IgG. These results, coupled with experiments using a temperature-sensitive mutant of VSV G protein grown at partly restrictive temperature, suggest that small numbers of VSV G protein are obligately incorporated into VSV(MuLV) pseudotypes. There appears to be a stringent requirement for recognition of the viral core by homologous envelope components as the nucleating step in the budding process. Only after such a nucleation can the envelope components of the second virus substitute into the membrane of the budding particle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Viral
  • Cell Line
  • Genes
  • Moloney murine leukemia virus / metabolism*
  • Mutation
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / immunology
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / metabolism*
  • Viral Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Viral Proteins / immunology


  • Antigens, Viral
  • Viral Proteins