Vertebrate endoderm development and organ formation

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2009;25:221-51. doi: 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.042308.113344.

Abstract

The endoderm germ layer contributes to the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and to all of their associated organs. Over the past decade, studies in vertebrate model organisms, including frog, fish, chick, and mouse, have greatly enhanced our understanding of the molecular basis of endoderm organ development. We review this progress with a focus on early stages of endoderm organogenesis including endoderm formation, gut tube morphogenesis and patterning, and organ specification. Lastly, we discuss how developmental mechanisms that regulate endoderm organogenesis are used to direct differentiation of embryonic stem cells into specific adult cell types, which function to alleviate disease symptoms in animal models.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Endoderm / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Organogenesis*
  • Vertebrates / embryology*