Pulmonary complications of cirrhosis

Med Clin North Am. 2009 Jul;93(4):871-83, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2009.03.006.


Advanced liver disease and portal hypertension produce various intrathoracic complications that involve the pleural space, the lung parenchyma, and the pulmonary circulation. Dyspnea and arterial hypoxemia are the most common symptoms and signs in patients with such complications. This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and hepatic hydrothorax. All are pulmonary processes associated with end-stage liver disease that lead to significant morbidity and affect the quality of life of patients who are suffering from liver cirrhosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Echocardiography, Doppler
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / etiology
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Hepatopulmonary Syndrome / therapy
  • Humans
  • Hydrothorax / etiology*
  • Hypertension, Portal / complications
  • Hypertension, Portal / epidemiology
  • Hypertension, Portal / physiopathology
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / classification
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / epidemiology
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / etiology*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / physiopathology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications*
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Prognosis