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, 6 (6), 1778-98

Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review


Biological Effects and Safety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Review

Valentina Hartwig et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.


Since the introduction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic technique, the number of people exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has increased dramatically. In this review, based on the results of a pioneer study showing in vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of MRI scans, we report an updated survey about the effects of non-ionizing EMF employed in MRI, relevant for patients' and workers' safety. While the whole data does not confirm a risk hypothesis, it suggests a need for further studies and prudent use in order to avoid unnecessary examinations, according to the precautionary principle.

Keywords: MRI safety; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; electromagnetic fields; genotoxic effects.


Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Electromagnetic spectrum and some sources of radiation.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
MN induction at different times after cardiac MRI scans. * Statistically different from control (p < 0.001)

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