This study based on rapid survey methodology examining 17.86 lakhs population revealed that leprosy prevalence in Agra District is 6.1/10,000 during 2004-06, with 97.2% of the cases detected for the first time. Although leprosy is still endemic but all the leprosy indicators have shown positive change since last survey in 2001-03. The results seem promising to achieve elimination target (<1/10,000) since prevalence/10,000 population declined from 16.4 in 2001-03 to 6.1 in 2004-06, MB rate from 22.3 to 17.1, Mean duration of disease at detection (months) from 32.3 to 22.9, per cent new cases increased from 88.2% to 97.2% and visible disability (Grade > or = 2) rate declined from 4.8% to 2.36% over this period. The data on patients with incomplete history of treatment (prevalent) but having active disease indicate that only about 3% (31/1090) had approached the health center for treatment. Of these 31 patients, 29% defaulted from treatment and still have active disease and 75.2% (23/31) had MB disease indicating a pattern of late reporting to health system. This study suggests that repeat surveys are useful to detect cases for treatment and seems the key to achieve leprosy elimination or even eradication at district level in all endemic districts.