Surface modification of glass beads with glutaraldehyde: characterization and their adsorption property for metal ions

J Hazard Mater. 2009 Nov 15;171(1-3):594-600. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.06.045. Epub 2009 Jun 18.


In this study, a new material that adsorbs the metal ions was prepared by modification of the glass beads surfaces with glutaraldehyde. First, the glass beads were etched with 4M NaOH solution. Then, they were reacted with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APTES). Finally, silanized glass beads were treated with 25% of glutaraldehyde solution. The characterization studies by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), elemental analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) indicated that modification of the glass bead surfaces was successfully performed. The adsorption studies exhibited that the modified glass beads could be efficiently used for the removal of the metal cations and anion (chromate ion) from aqueous solutions via chelation and ion-exchange mechanisms. For both Pb(II) and Cr(VI), selected as model ions, the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 60 min and adsorption of both ions followed the second-order kinetic model. It was found that the sorption data was better represented by the Freundlich isotherm in comparison to the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II) and Cr(VI) were 9.947 and 11.571 mg/g, respectively. The regeneration studies also showed that modified glass beads could be re-used for the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions over three cycles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Chromium / chemistry
  • Glass / chemistry*
  • Glutaral / chemistry*
  • Ions*
  • Kinetics
  • Lead / chemistry
  • Metals / chemistry*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning / methods
  • Propylamines
  • Silanes / chemistry
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared / methods
  • Surface Properties
  • Thermogravimetry / methods
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry
  • Water Purification / methods


  • Ions
  • Metals
  • Propylamines
  • Silanes
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Chromium
  • Lead
  • amino-propyl-triethoxysilane
  • Glutaral