A novel chloroplast-localized protein EMB1303 is required for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis

Cell Res. 2009 Oct;19(10):1205-16. doi: 10.1038/cr.2009.84. Epub 2009 Jul 7.


To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying chloroplast development, we isolated and characterized the albino mutant emb1303-1 in Arabidopsis. The mutant displayed a severe dwarf phenotype with small albino rosette leaves and short roots on a synthetic medium containing sucrose. It is pigment-deficient and seedling lethal when grown in soil. Embryo development was delayed in the mutant, although seed germination was not significantly impaired. The plastids of emb1303-1 were arrested in early developmental stages without the classical stack of thylakoid membrane. Genetic and molecular analyses uncovered that the EMB1303 gene encodes a novel chloroplast-localized protein. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses revealed that a number of nuclear- and plastid-encoded genes involved in photosynthesis and chloroplast biogenesis were substantially downregulated in the mutant. Moreover, the accumulation of several major chloroplast proteins was severely compromised in emb1303-1. These results suggest that EMB1303 is essential for chloroplast development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / physiology
  • Chloroplasts / metabolism*
  • Down-Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Organelle Biogenesis
  • Phenotype
  • Photosynthesis
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / growth & development


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • EMB1303 protein, Arabidopsis