Pseudomonas is a genus of non-fermentative gram-negative Gammaproteobacteria found both on land and in the water. Many terrestrial isolates of this genus have been studied extensively. While many produce bioactive substances, enzymes, and biosurfactants, other Pseudomonas isolates are used for biological control of plant diseases and bioremediation. In contrast, only a few marine isolates of this genus have been described that produce novel bioactive substances. The chemical structures of the bioactive substances from marine Pseudomonas are diverse, including pyroles, pseudopeptide pyrrolidinedione, phloroglucinol, phenazine, benzaldehyde, quinoline, quinolone, phenanthren, phthalate, andrimid, moiramides, zafrin and bushrin. Some of these bioactive compounds are antimicrobial agents, and dibutyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate have been reported to be cathepsin B inhibitors. In addition to being heterogeneous in terms of their structures, the antibacterial substances produced by Pseudomonas also have diverse mechanisms of action: some affect the bacterial cell membrane, causing bacterial cell lysis, whereas others act as acetyl-CoA carboxylase and nitrous oxide synthesis inhibitors. Marine Pseudomonas spp. have been isolated from a wide range of marine environments and are a potential untapped source for medically relevant bioactive substances.