Recent advances in genetic studies on restless legs syndrome (RLS) have led to a series of important discoveries that greatly expand our knowledge on the molecular basis of this disease. RLS is a common and complex disease. Several genetic epidemiological studies and twin studies have characterized the genetic components of RLS and suggest that it is a highly heritable trait with heritability estimates of about 50%. The five chromosomal positions (12q13-23, 14q13-21, 9p24-22, 2q33, and 20p13) have been determined either by model-based linkage analysis or by model-free linkage analysis, which have provided the linkage maps for positional cloning of the underlying genes or susceptibility genes for this disorder. Most recent genome-wide association studies based on high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms have also defined three significantly associated RLS regions (6p21.2, 2p 14, and 15q23). By integrating with our recent genetic studies for this neurological disorder, we reviewed the most important findings achieved in genetic studies of RLS.