An update on the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in Alzheimer's disease

Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009 Aug;18(8):1147-68. doi: 10.1517/13543780903066780.


Several epidemiological studies suggest that long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may protect against Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially for patients carrying one or more epsilon4 allele of the apolipoprotein E. The biological mechanism of this protection is not completely understood and may involve inhibition of COX activity, inhibition of beta-amyloid(1-42) (Abeta42) production and aggregation, inhibition of beta-secretase activity, activation of PPAR-gamma or stimulation of neurotrophin synthesis. Unfortunately, long-term, placebo-controlled clinical trials with both non-selective and COX-2 selective NSAIDs in AD patients produced negative results. A secondary prevention study with rofecoxib in patients with mild cognitive impairment and a primary prevention study with naproxen and celecoxib in elderly subjects with a family history of AD were also negative. All these failures have diminished the hope that NSAIDs could be beneficial in the treatment of AD. It is hypothesized that the chronic use of NSAIDs may be beneficial only in the normal brain by inhibiting the production of Abeta42. Once the Abeta deposition process has started, NSAIDs are no longer effective and may even be detrimental because of their inhibiting activity on activated microglia of the AD brain, which mediates Abeta clearance and activates compensatory hippocampal neurogenesis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy*
  • Alzheimer Disease / enzymology
  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism
  • Alzheimer Disease / prevention & control
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / biosynthesis
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / biosynthesis
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Peptide Fragments / biosynthesis
  • Treatment Failure


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Peptide Fragments
  • amyloid beta-protein (1-42)
  • Cyclooxygenase 2