The introduction of biological agents targeting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has brought about a paradigm shift in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although these anti-TNF agents have excellent efficacy against RA, a substantial number of patients still show inadequate responses. In Western countries, such patients are already being treated with new classes of antirheumatic drugs such as abatacept and rituximab. Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a humanized monoclonal antibody developed in Japan against the human interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor. TCZ does not only alleviate the signs and symptoms of RA but also seems to prevent progressive bone and joint destruction. However, there is a concern that TCZ might increase the risk of adverse events such as infections since IL-6 plays a pivotal role in the immune system. Calculating the relative risks of specific adverse outcomes with TCZ use remains difficult, due to insufficient patient numbers enrolled in clinical trials to date. This review presents tentative guidelines for the use of TCZ for RA patients prepared by the Japan College of Rheumatology and based on results of clinical trials in Japan and Western countries. The guidelines are intended as a guide for postmarketing surveillance and clinical practice, and will be revised periodically based on the surveillance.