Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of depression in patients with CKD

Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Oct;54(4):741-52. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.05.003. Epub 2009 Jul 9.


A 58-year-old Hispanic man who has been dialysis dependent for 2 years because of diabetic nephropathy reports depressive symptoms during dialysis rounds. For the past 6 weeks, he has had reduced energy and difficulty sleeping and concentrating. He reports a loss of interest in his usual hobbies and family activities and notes an increasing sense of feeling worthless and guilty. He denies suicidal ideation. Medical history includes diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, coronary artery disease treated with 4-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting 3 years ago, ischemic cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction of 30%, and cerebrovascular disease. His wife recently has been given a diagnosis of breast cancer. His medications are aspirin, metoprolol, lisinopril, simvastatin, sevelamer, and epoetin alfa. His blood pressure is 130/75 mm Hg, pulse is 65 beats/min, and cardiac and pulmonary examination results are unremarkable. He is interviewed by the social worker in the dialysis unit, who diagnoses clinical depression by using standard Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM IV) criteria. The patient refuses to discuss his problems with the social worker and declines further psychiatric evaluation. His nephrologist discusses a trial of antidepressant medication, but the patient refuses to use additional medication. During the next month, the patient presents with greater interdialytic weight gains and begins to come late for dialysis sessions. He then presents to a dialysis session reporting dyspnea and orthopnea and is found to have a 10-kg weight gain. On physical examination, blood pressure is 196/96 mm Hg and he has increased jugular venous pressure and bibasilar crackles. He is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Depression / complications
  • Depression / diagnosis
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / etiology*
  • Depression / therapy*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / psychology*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / therapy
  • Heart Failure / etiology
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / psychology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / psychology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / therapy
  • Risk Factors