Peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is one of the major complications arising in patients with diabetes. Since PDN is traditionally considered an irreversible disorder, treatment has been aimed to prevent the development of complications. In a novel concept, however, it is postulated that decompression surgery of the affected nerve may reverse the natural course of PDN. In this review, we will discuss experimental and human studies that addressed the value of nerve decompression surgery in PDN. Furthermore, we report on the awareness of this novel treatment strategy among medical professionals that are primarily involved in diabetes care.