Evaluation of cardioprotective activity of Ginkgo biloba and Ocimum sanctum in rodents

Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun;14(2):161-71.


This study investigates the cardioprotective activity of a combined treatment of Ginkgo biloba phytosomes (GBP) and Ocimum sanctum extract (Os) in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Significant myocardial necrosis, depletion of the endogenous antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH), and increases in the serum marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were observed in ISO-treated rats compared with normal rats. Co-administration of GBP (100 mg per kg) with Os at two doses (50 and 75 mg per kg) for 30 days to rats treated with ISO (85 mg per kg, sc) on the 29th and 30th days demonstrated a significant decrease in ISO-induced serum marker enzyme elevations and a significant attenuation of the ISO-elevated myocardial lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde (MDA). A significant restoration of ISO-depleted activities and levels of AST, LDH, CPK, GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR in the hearts of the treatment groups was observed. The combination of Os 75 mg per kg and GBP 100 mg/kg elicited greater protection than the combination of Os 50 mg per kg and GBP 100 mg per kg. It may be concluded that GBP-Os oral treatment to ISO-challenged rats demonstrates significant cardiac protection, decreases lipid peroxidation, and restores antioxidant activities. However, the combined treatment failed to enhance cardioprotective activity of either herb when used alone.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage*
  • Cardiotonic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Ginkgo biloba*
  • Isoproterenol
  • Myocardial Infarction / chemically induced
  • Myocardial Infarction / enzymology
  • Myocardial Infarction / prevention & control*
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • Necrosis / chemically induced
  • Ocimum*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidoreductases / blood
  • Phytotherapy / methods*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Antioxidants
  • Cardiotonic Agents
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Isoproterenol