Long-term follow-up of male patients after reconstruction of the bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex: psychosocial status, continence, renal and genital function

J Pediatr Urol. 2010 Feb;6(1):6-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2009.06.002. Epub 2009 Jul 10.


Objective: There is a paucity of knowledge about long-term outcome issues in the bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC). Adult male BEEC patients were investigated in respect of bladder and renal function, fertility, genital function and psychosocial facts.

Patients and methods: In a cross-sectional study, 17 adult male BEEC patients (mean age 23.4 years) from a single centre were evaluated with a questionnaire, renal and bladder ultrasound, blood tests, hormonal profile and semen analysis.

Results: Phenotypically one patient had complete epispadias and 16 had classical bladder exstrophy. Five patients underwent a one-stage functional reconstruction as a primary and 12 as a redo procedure. After a mean follow-up of 19.4 years, 15 bladders were preserved with 12 voiding per urethram and 3 performing intermittent catheterization; 2 were secondarily diverted. Significant residual urine was present in 10; kidneys were normal in 14 patients. Sixteen patients proved ejaculations, 3 had normospermia, 7 oligoasthenospermia and 6 azospermia. In patients with only one single bladder neck procedure normospermia was statistically significant.

Conclusion: After functional BEEC reconstruction, long-term bladder function is preserved with mostly normal renal function. The number of bladder neck attempts has a significant influence on andrologic outcome. Detailed analysis may detect multifactorial pathogenesis from the impaired sperm quality in the BEEC.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Bladder Exstrophy / complications
  • Bladder Exstrophy / psychology
  • Bladder Exstrophy / surgery*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Epispadias / complications
  • Epispadias / psychology
  • Epispadias / surgery*
  • Fertility
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genitalia, Male / physiology
  • Humans
  • Kidney / physiology
  • Male
  • Time Factors
  • Urinary Bladder / physiology
  • Urination
  • Young Adult