Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an activator of the lectin pathway of the C' system and hence an important component of the innate immune system. Although reports are conflicting, MBL deficiency has been reported to influence the infection susceptibility in hematology/oncology patients or recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). MBL levels and the occurrence of infections were retrospectively analyzed in 98 pediatric HSCT patients. MBL deficiency in recipients was not corrected by HSCT using a donor with normal MBL production. In addition, low serum MBL concentrations were not associated with increased susceptibility to any type of infections post-HSCT in this cohort of pediatric HSCT recipients.