Background: The demand for oncology services in the United States (US) is increasing, whereas a shortage of oncologists looms. There is the need for a better understanding of the involvement of primary care physicians (PCPs) in cancer care.
Objective: To characterize the role of PCPs in cancer care, compare it with that of oncologists, and identify factors explaining greater PCP involvement in cancer care.
Design: National survey of physicians caring for cancer patients conducted by the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium.
Participants: 1694 PCPs; 1621 oncologists.
Measurements: Questionnaires mailed during 2005 and 2006 examined the participation of physicians in 12 aspects of care for cancer patients.
Main results: Over 90% of PCPs fulfilled general medical care roles for patients with cancer such as managing comorbid conditions, chronic pain, or depression; establishing do-not-resuscitate status; and referring patients to hospice. Oncologists were less involved in these roles. Determining the treatment preferences of individual patients and deciding on the use of surgery were the only cancer care roles in which > or =50% of PCPs participated. Twenty-two percent of PCPs reported no direct involvement in cancer care roles while 19% reported heavy involvement. PCPs who were aged > or =50 years, were internists or geriatricians, taught medical students, saw more cancer patients, or experienced referral barriers fulfilled more roles. Rural practice location was not associated with greater PCP involvement in cancer care.
Conclusions: PCPs across the US have an active role in cancer patient management. Determining the optimal interface between PCPs and oncologists in delivering and coordinating cancer care is an important area for future research.