Objective: To prospectively study S-100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE) levels in subjects treated for severe head injury (sTBI), and investigate the prognostic value of these biomarkers.
Methods: Subjects included in a prospective double blind randomised study for sTBI.
Inclusion criteria: Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) <or=8, age 15-70 years, first recorded cerebral perfusion pressure of >10 mm Hg and arrival <24 h after trauma. Subjects were treated with an intracranial pressure (ICP) targeted therapy. Blood samples for S-100B and NSE were drawn immediately after arrival and every 12 h for 5 days. Outcome was evaluated as Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) by independent staff at 3 and 12 months.
Results: 48 subjects, mean age 35.5 years, and median GCS 6 were included. The first blood sample was drawn at 15.6 (1.4) h after injury. Initial concentration of S-100B was 1.04 (0.21) microg/l and for NSE 18.94 (2.32) microg/l. The biomarkers were significantly higher in subjects with GCS 3 and in those who died compared with those with GCS 4-8 and GOS 2-5, respectively. Receiver operated characteristic curve analyses of the initial S-100B and NSE levels to GOS dichotomised as unfavourable (GOS 1-3) and favourable (GOS 4-5) showed a weak correlation: AUC 0.585 and 0.555, respectively. Using the dichotomisation dead (GOS 1)/alive (GOS 2-5), the AUC values were 0.687 and 0.734, respectively. Furthermore, a correlation was found between the biomarkers themselves and the biomarkers and ICP.
Conclusion: At 3 and 12 months after trauma, no differences in prognostic values between the markers were apparent nor was there any clinical significant value of the markers as predictors of clinical outcome.