Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) has proven to be an effective vaccine vector for immunization against viral infection, but its potential to induce an immune response to a self-tumor antigen has not been investigated. We constructed a recombinant VSV expressing human dopachrome tautomerase (hDCT) and evaluated its immunogenicity in a murine melanoma model. Intranasal delivery of VSV-hDCT activated both CD4(+) and CD8(+) DCT-specific T-cell responses. The magnitude of these responses could be significantly increased by booster immunization with recombinant adenovirus (Ad)-hDCT, which led to enhanced efficacy against B16-F10 melanoma in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Notably, the interval of VSV/Ad heterologous vaccination could be shortened to as few as 4 days, making it a potential regimen to rapidly expand antigen-specific effector cells. Furthermore, VSV-hDCT could increase DCT-specific T-cell responses primed by Ad-hDCT, suggesting VSV is efficient for both priming and boosting of the immune response against a self-tumor antigen.