Epigenetic and microRNA-dependent control of cytochrome P450 expression: a gap between DNA and protein

Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Jul;10(7):1067-76. doi: 10.2217/pgs.09.56.


Although pharmacogenetics has been instrumental in describing interindividual variations in drug metabolism, epigenetic factors offer another blanket of information that could give a more vivid picture and help in developing a more personalized therapy. The dynamic aspect of epigenetics could likewise provide more definite answers to the role of changing environmental factors in drug response: the bridge that connects the environment to the genome. In this review we discuss known epigenetic and microRNA-dependent regulation of the human drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 to help explain the unknown factors of variable drug response.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / biosynthesis
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • DNA / biosynthesis
  • DNA / genetics*
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology*
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs / biosynthesis
  • MicroRNAs / genetics
  • MicroRNAs / physiology*
  • Protein Biosynthesis / genetics*


  • MicroRNAs
  • DNA
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System