Imaging of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation

Radiographics. 2009 Jul-Aug;29(4):981-1000; discussion 1000-2. doi: 10.1148/rg.294095020.


Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases that represent uncommon complications of transplantation and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. PTLD is most prevalent during the first year following transplantation and occurs most frequently in multiorgan transplant recipients, followed by bowel, heart-lung, and lung recipients. It may involve any of the organ systems, with disease manifestation and the anatomic pattern of organ involvement being highly dependent on the type of transplantation. The current classification system includes four subtypes that have different prognoses requiring different treatment strategies. Tissue sampling is necessary for diagnosis and further subcategorization. The majority of cases are characterized by B-cell proliferation and are related to infection from Epstein-Barr virus. Knowledge of the distribution and radiologic features of PTLD allows the radiologist to play a pivotal role in making an early diagnosis and in guiding biopsy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Lymphoproliferative Disorders / etiology*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Organ Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Positron-Emission Tomography / methods*
  • Postoperative Care / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods*
  • Treatment Outcome