Between March 1986 and April 1990, 22 consecutive fetuses (at gestational ages of 21 to 38 weeks) with a suspected diagnosis of critical (ductus-dependent) left ventricular outflow tract obstruction on fetal echocardiogram were referred to our center for delivery and surgical treatment. Diagnoses were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (n = 16), valvular aortic stenosis (n = 2), common atrioventricular canal with subaortic stenosis (n = 3), and single ventricle with subaortic stenosis (n = 1). Postnatal echocardiography revealed that fetal echocardiography was correct in predicting left ventricular outflow tract obstruction to be critical in all but one patient, for a positive predictive value of 96%. Of the 21 patients with true, critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, 17 patients underwent cardiac surgery as neonates (birth to 6 days of age, median 2 days); 13 (or 77%) survived and were discharged from the hospital. In addition, one patient underwent successful balloon aortic valvotomy for critical valvular aortic stenosis but later died of sepsis. Lethal chromosomal and congenital abnormalities should be sought and are contraindications for this approach. In utero transport of fetuses with suspected critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction to a neonatal cardiac surgical center can result in improved neonatal condition and may improve overall survival.