Efficacy of electrolyzed water and an acidic formulation compared with regularly used chemical sanitizers for tableware sanitization during mechanical and manual ware-washing protocols

J Food Prot. 2009 Jun;72(6):1315-20. doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-72.6.1315.


This study investigated residual bacteria and different food types left on tableware items after various washing and sanitization protocols. Escherichia coli K-12 and Staphylococcus epidermidis were inoculated into whole milk and soft cream cheese. The milk was used to contaminate regular drinking glasses and the cheese was used to contaminate plates and silverware. These tableware items were washed in manual (43 degrees C) and mechanical (49 degrees C) washers and sanitized with different sanitizers (24 degrees C) for 5 s. Quaternary ammonium compound, sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), and a combination of citric acid with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (acidic formulation) were used as the chemical sanitizers. Tap water was used as a control. Results showed that at least 5-log reductions in both bacterial numbers were achieved for all sanitizers in both types of washers, except for the control. With mechanical dishwashing, the NEW and acidic formulation treatments reduced bacterial populations by >6.9 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. With the manual operation, bacterial numbers were reduced by >5.4 and >6.0 log CFU per tableware item, respectively. This study revealed that NEW and the acidic formulation are as effective as the other chemical sanitizers for food contact surface sanitization in manual and mechanical ware washing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cheese / microbiology
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Cooking and Eating Utensils*
  • Disinfectants / chemistry
  • Disinfectants / pharmacology*
  • Disinfection / methods*
  • Electrolysis
  • Equipment Contamination* / prevention & control
  • Escherichia coli K12 / drug effects
  • Escherichia coli K12 / growth & development
  • Food Microbiology
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Milk / microbiology
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis / growth & development
  • Water / chemistry
  • Water / pharmacology


  • Disinfectants
  • Water