Status epilepticus: aetiology and outcome in children

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. Jul-Sep 2008;20(3):51-3.

Abstract

Background: Convulsing Status Epilepticus (CSE) is a common paediatric emergency especially under 24 months age group. Present study was done to know causes of Status Epilepticus (SE) and outcome during admission and at the time of discharge.

Methods: A descriptive study in children 2 months to 15 years of age, admitted in Department of Paediatrics, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad with first status epilepticus, was done to evaluate aetiology, complications and immediate outcome after relevant history, examination, laboratory tests. All information was recorded on Performa designed especially for this purpose. Study was conducted over 2 year period from November 2005 to November 2007.

Results: Total number of children admitted with SE was 125. Majority of SE episodes were related to acute febrile illnesses. Acute viral encephalitis was the common cause of SE especially in children younger than 24 months followed by febrile convulsions. Fifteen (12%) patients expired while neurological complications secondary to brain injury developed in 10(8%) cases. Mean seizure duration was 4.92 +/- 9.18 hours in children with normal outcome, 5.93 +/- 5.76 hours in children who died, and 12.85 +/- 12.91 hours in children with abnormal neurological outcome at discharge (p > 0.05). Correlation between age and duration of seizure was not significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: SE is a common paediatric emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. In young children SE is commonly associated with acute viral encephalitis. Antiviral treatment should be started earlier in this group of young children after history, examination, laboratory tests along with appropriate management of SE.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Pakistan / epidemiology
  • Status Epilepticus / complications*
  • Status Epilepticus / diagnosis
  • Status Epilepticus / epidemiology
  • Status Epilepticus / etiology*
  • Treatment Outcome