Risk factors, prevention and early detection of prostate cancer

Prim Care. 2009 Sep;36(3):603-21. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2009.04.007.


Approximately one in six men in the United States will develop prostate cancer during their lifetime. Genetic and environmental variables play a role in determining prostate cancer risk. This article highlights the latest evidence regarding the risk factors for prostate cancer. The current screening strategies using prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination are also discussed, as well as the limitations of these protocols and potential methods for improving early detection.

MeSH terms

  • Comorbidity
  • Diet
  • Dietary Supplements / adverse effects
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / methods*
  • Mass Screening / standards
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Prescription Drugs / adverse effects
  • Primary Health Care*
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Risk Factors


  • Prescription Drugs
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen