Vitamin D and depressive symptoms in women during the winter: a pilot study

Appl Nurs Res. 2009 Aug;22(3):221-5. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2007.08.001.


Background: Research indicates that vitamin D supplementation may decrease depressive symptoms during the winter months.

Method: In this study, nine women with serum vitamin D levels <40 ng/ml were administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II. After vitamin D3 supplementation, six of these women completed the BDI-II and had their serum vitamin D levels reassessed.

Results: Vitamin D supplementation was associated not only with an increase in the serum D levels by an average of 27 ng/ml but also with a decline in the BDI-II scores of an average of 10 points.

Discussion: This study suggests that supplemental vitamin D3 reduces depressive symptoms.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Depression / blood
  • Depression / complications
  • Depression / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Pilot Projects
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Seasons*
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / drug therapy*
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamins / blood
  • Young Adult


  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D