The inter-tester reliability of humeral head position in junior swimmers

Phys Ther Sport. 2009 Aug;10(3):97-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2009.02.002. Epub 2009 Mar 31.


Objectives: To determine the inter-tester reliability of a clinical measure of humeral head position.

Design: Same day repeated measures inter-tester reliability study.

Setting: 2 Western Australian Aquatic Centres.

Participants: 15 Junior elite swimmers were measured by 3 investigators.

Main outcome measures: The distance between the most anterior part of the humeral head and the anterior acromion was measured with shoulder in neutral position and hands on hips position.

Results: The humeral head SEMs ranged from 2.4 to 3.2 mm. ICCs were 0.60-0.68 in the hands on hips position and 0.49 in the neutral position. Significant differences existed between testers for some humeral head measures.

Conclusions: Humeral head in the hands on hips position measure appears to be a clinically useful tool in assessment of the shoulder in young athletes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Humerus*
  • Male
  • Palpation*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Swimming / injuries
  • Swimming / physiology*