We review here the history, neuropathology, clinical picture and molecular data on transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME). This obscure disease is of utmost importance as it is plausible that it represents a transmission of hidden bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to mink in the USA. Of special interest is the similarity of L-type of BSE and TME. Furthermore, experimental molecular studies showed the TME strain-specific in vitro conversion in a cell-free system. In addition, we show here for the first time confocal laser microscopy studies of co-localization of PrPd- amyloid plaques and GFAP-expressing astrocytes.