Tenacity of avian influenza viruses

Rev Sci Tech. 2009 Apr;28(1):59-67. doi: 10.20506/rst.28.1.1880.


The goal of this review is to provide an overview of existing research on the environmental tenacity of avian influenza (AI) viruses, to identify gaps in our current understanding, and discuss how this information relates to AI control, eradication, and prevention. We are just beginning to understand the environmental factors that affect infectivity and the extent of variation in environmental tenacity that is present among these viruses. Because the environment can provide a bridge for AI virus transmission between many diverse hosts, including wild and domestic animals and man, understanding the importance of environmental transmission and identifying important points of contact are critical steps in preventing the spread of infection especially related to the introduction of these viruses to new host species.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Birds
  • Environmental Microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / pathogenicity
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / physiology
  • Influenza A virus / pathogenicity
  • Influenza A virus / physiology*
  • Influenza in Birds / prevention & control
  • Influenza in Birds / transmission
  • Influenza in Birds / virology*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control
  • Influenza, Human / transmission
  • Influenza, Human / virology*
  • Water Microbiology