Posttranscriptional regulation plays a crucial role in germline and early embryonic development, but the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. Here we report the genetic and molecular analysis of the maternally and zygotically expressed microRNA miR-184 in Drosophila. Loss of miR-184 leads to multiple severe defects during oogenesis and early embryogenesis, culminating in the complete loss of egg production. Using both in vitro and in vivo assays, we characterize the relevant miR-184 targets and target sites for three of the observed phenotypes. miR-184 controls germline stem cell differentiation by tuning the DPP receptor Saxophone, dorsoventral patterning of the egg shell by regulating the gurken transport factor K10, and anteroposterior patterning of the blastoderm by tuning the transcriptional repressor Tramtrack69. Our study highlights the importance of microRNA-mediated regulation in the major developmental transitions of the female germline, and provides insights into several aspects of microRNA function.