There have been 26 series (1,274 eyes) published on the use of pneumatic retinopexy for selected retinal detachments. Eighty percent were reattached with a single procedure and 98% with reoperations. New retinal breaks occurred in 13% and proliferative vitreoretinopathy in 4%. The three complications reported with pneumatic retinopexy but not with scleral buckling are subretinal gas, gas entrapment at the pars plana, and subconjunctival gas. Twenty-six complications of pneumatic retinopexy, most of which may also occur with scleral buckling, are discussed as to incidence, cause, prevention, and management.