Cervical lymphadenitis may be the result of diverse conditions in a patient. Clinical and epidemiologic information about cervical lymphadenitis can often lead to a presumptive diagnosis and, thus, limit the number of studies required as well as direct the type of initial therapy administered. We report a case of cervical lymphadenitis in a Vietnamese woman for whom a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and antituberculous therapy was started. Pathologic examination of an excised lymph node revealed the correct diagnosis--histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis, or Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. We review the clinical, epidemiologic, and pathologic features of this recently recognized disease. Careful examination of excised material from the lymph nodes should prevent patients who have Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease from receiving unnecessary treatment.