Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II (CDAII) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, hemolysis, erythroblast morphological abnormalities, and hypoglycosylation of some red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins. Recent studies indicated that CDAII is caused by a defect disturbing Golgi processing in erythroblasts. A linkage analysis located a candidate region on chromosome 20, termed the CDAN2 locus, in the majority of CDAII patients but the aberrant gene has not so far been elucidated. We used a proteomic-genomic approach to identify SEC23B as the candidate gene for CDAII by matching the recently published data on the cytoplasmic proteome of human RBCs with the chromosomic localization of CDAN2 locus. Sequencing analysis of SEC23B gene in 13 CDAII patients from 10 families revealed 12 different mutations: six missense (c.40C>T, c.325G>A, c.1043A>C, c.1489C>T, c.1808C>T, and c.2101C>T), two frameshift (c.428_428delAinsCG and c.1821delT), one splicing (c.689+1G>A), and three nonsense (c.568C>T, c.649C>T, and c.1660C>T). Mutations c.40C>T and c.325G>A were detected in unrelated patients. SEC23B is a member of the Sec23/Sec24 family, a component of the COPII coat protein complex involved in protein transport through membrane vesicles. Abnormalities in this gene are likely to disturb endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi trafficking, affecting different glycosylation pathways and ultimately accounting for the cellular phenotype observed in CDAII.