Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 23 Suppl 1, 9-20

Issues in the Management of Patients With Complex Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

Affiliations
Review

Issues in the Management of Patients With Complex Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

Thomas J Spencer. CNS Drugs.

Abstract

Patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a wide range of symptoms related to functional impairment. Psychiatric comorbidities are highly prevalent among these patients, often emerging at an early age and persisting (or reoccurring) into adulthood. Among the most common types of comorbidities in children and adults are disruptive behaviour disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders. The heterogeneous clinical presentation of ADHD, which also changes with maturation into adulthood, may often obscure the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. Co-occurring disorders frequently go undetected and lead to negative effects on psychosocial and long-term functional outcomes. As with uncomplicated ADHD, medication therapy combined with psychosocial interventions may be necessary. With comorbid disorders, two or more medications may be considered to appropriately manage both ADHD and the comorbid disorder. However, there are few studies that discuss combination medication treatments and there are no current US FDA-approved combined treatments for ADHD and comorbid conditions. This raises significant challenges and risks for poor tolerability and drug-drug interactions. Nevertheless, identification and appropriate treatment must be given a high priority for these highly vulnerable patients to derive optimal benefits from treatment.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 5 articles

References

    1. Crim Behav Ment Health. 2002;12(1):24-36 - PubMed
    1. Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Aug 15;44(4):269-73 - PubMed
    1. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2008 Jan;34(1):80-9 - PubMed
    1. Brain Res. 2004 Nov 19;1027(1-2):173-8 - PubMed
    1. J Learn Disabil. 2006 Nov-Dec;39(6):507-14 - PubMed

MeSH terms

Feedback