We examined the effects of 2 months of psyllium treatment in optimizing metabolic control and lipoprotein profile, and its postprandial effects on lipids in type II diabetes. We recruited 40 type II diabetic patients who were on sulfonylureas and a controlled diet, sequentially assigning them to psyllium treatment (G1) or to a control group (G2) treated with dietary measures alone. After 2 months of treatment, body mass index, waist circumference, HbA1c (hemoglobin A1c) and fasting plasma glucose levels had significantly decreased in both groups. There were no postprandial differences in the lipoprotein profile between the two groups. Triglycerides were significantly lower in G1, but not in G2. Our study contributes toward elucidating the effects of psyllium on serum lipids, and suggests that psyllium treatment may help in reducing triglycerides (a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease) in type II diabetic patients.