External quality assurance for serological detection of chikungunya virus infection was performed to assess the diagnostic quality of expert laboratories. Of 30 participants, only six correctly analysed all reference samples with their respective tests. Thirteen laboratories gave at least 85% correct results, and 11 laboratories 75% or less. IgM antibodies were detected less frequently than IgG antibodies (p <0.001). The study provides information on the quality of different serological tests and indicates that most of the participants need to improve the sensitivity of their assays, in particular to detect IgM antibodies more reliably and be able to detect acute infections adequately.