Background: One of the rarest forms of autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (AR-CGD) is attributable to mutations in the NCF2 gene, which encodes the polypeptide p67(phox), a key cytoplasmic protein in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase system. NCF2 is localized on chromosome 1q25, encompasses 40 kb and contains 16 exons.
Materials and methods: We report here the clinical and molecular characterization of six patients with CGD from six consanguineous Turkish families. The ages of the five female patients were between 3 and 22 years and a male patient was 2 years old; all patients showed clear clinical symptoms of CGD.
Results: The mothers of the patients did not show a bimodal histogram pattern specific for X-CGD in the dihydrorhodamine-1,2,3 (DHR) assay. Moreover, p67(phox) protein expression was not detectable using flow cytometric analysis of the patients' neutrophils except in those from patient 6, which had a diminished expression. Mutation analysis of NCF2 revealed four different homozygous mutations: a novel nonsense mutation in exon 3 c.229C>T, p.Arg77X; a novel missense mutation in exon 4 c.279C>G, p.Asp93Glu; a nonsense mutation in exon 4 c.304C>T, p.Arg102X; and a novel missense mutation in exon 6 c.605C>T, p.Ala202Val. The parents were found to be heterozygotes for these mutations.
Conclusions: The prevalence of NCF2 mutant families is approximately 15% in our series of 40 CGD families. This high incidence of A67 CGD in Turkey is undoubtedly caused by the high incidence of consanguineous marriages. We found three new mutations in NCF2 and one previously described. These are presented together with an overview of all NCF2 mutations now known.