This review will address the current understanding of the relationship between prolactin (PRL) and endometriosis-associated infertility. Although the exact mechanisms of action of hyperprolactinemia in patients with endometriosis-associated infertility have not been clearly established, this report reviews results from relevant studies in the literature. These include serum PRL levels in endometriosis-associated infertility, PRL receptors in ectopic endometriotic tissues, basal PRL levels after TSH and Danazol (isoxazolic derivative of the synthetic steroid 5alpha-ethinyl-testosterone) therapy, peritoneal fluid and nocturnal serum PRL levels in endometriosis, infertility, and luteal phase PRL concentrations in patients with endometriosis.
Target audience: Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians.
Learning objectives: After completion of this article, the reader should be able to explain the relationship between prolactin- and endometriosis-associated infertility, relate endometriosis with infertility, and summarize two ways in which prolactin and endometriosis may be linked in the pathophysiology of infertility.